German Press Responses to Anti-Jewish Violence in Germany and Russia (1881-1882)
Part II The Conservative Struggle against Liberalism 53
53 Part II The Conservative Struggle against Liberalism The Neue Preussische Zeitung, known as the Kreuzzeitung (a reference to the cross on its masthead) was German conservatism’s most prestigious newspaper. Primarily addressing members of the old Prussian aristocracy and devout Protes- tants, the newspaper derived its influence not least from the ‘Kreuzzeitung group’, whose politically influential members consisted of three main elements: the editor, Baron Wilhelm von Hammerstein-Schwartov, the ‘Old Conserva- tives’ and the party activists. Baron Wilhelm von Hammerstein-Schwartov was a member of the Prussian House of Deputies and of the Reichstag. He had suc- ceeded Benno von Niebelschütz as editor-in-chief in November 1881.148 Two of his closest aides were Baron Eduard von Ungern-Sternberg (co-editor of the Conservative Party newspaper Conservative Correspondenz and the prestigious Konservative Monatsschrift) and Hermann Kropatschek who succeeded Ham- merstein as editor in 1895. The Old Conservatives (also known as ‘High Con- servatives’ or ‘Ultras’) adhered to the old conservative ideals such as the restora- tion of the full rights of the church and a hierarchical socioeconomic order. Many sat in the Prussian House of Deputies and regarded Hammerstein, and the court preacher Adolf Stöcker, as their leaders.149 The party activists were drawn from networks all over Germany, organised in Bürgervereine (citizens associa- tions) in Berlin and conservative Vereine (associations) in the provinces. The Kreuzzeitung group also had the support of important ministers and generals in- cluding the Prussian Minister of the Interior Robert von Puttkamer, the Minister of Cultural and Ecclesiastical...
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