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Indirect and Direct Aggression

Edited By Karin Österman

Indirect and Direct Aggression consists of 24 chapters written by distinguished scholars within the field of aggression research, covering indirect aggression, bullying in schools, adult bullying, and societal and biological aspects of aggression. Indirect aggression is the most typical form of aggression used by women in most cultures. It is an aggressive strategy that is carried out by means of social manipulation that enables the perpetrator to go unnoticed and thereby escape retaliation. Knowledge about indirect aggression and its mechanisms is crucial for all anti-bullying efforts, among children and adults alike. Although briefly covered in early research on human aggression, the study of indirect aggression originates, beginning from the mid-1980s, from a research group in Finland, lead by Professor Kaj Björkqvist of Åbo Akademi University. The book can be used as a textbook at university level.

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Part IV. Societal Aspects of Aggression

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Part IV Societal Aspects of Aggression __________________________________________________________________________________________ Acknowledgement: This research has been supported by grants from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the Fogarty Center of the National Institute of Health to Rowell Huesmann. Correspondence should be addressed to Simha F. Landau, Institute of Criminology, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mt. Scopus, Jerusalem, 91905 Israel. Email: msfrdy@mscc.huji.ac.il The Effects of Exposure to Violence on Aggressive Behavior: The Case of Arab and Jewish Children in Israel Simha F. Landau1, Shira Dvir Gvirsman1, L. Rowell Huesmann2, Eric F. Dubow3,2, Paul Boxer4,2, Jeremy Ginges5, and Khalil Shikaki6 1Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel 2University of Michigan, USA 3Bowling Green State University, Ohio, USA 4Rutgers University, New Jersey, USA 5New School for Social Research, New York, USA 6Palestinian Center for Policy and Survey Research, Ramallah, the West Bank The impact of exposure to violence in the context of families, neigh- borhoods, and peer groups on pre-adolescents and adolescents has been widely studied. However, very little is known on the effect of exposure to political conflict and violence on children and youth. The literature is specially lacking studies assessing these last effects while controlling for exposure to violence in other contexts. This study eva- luates the cumulative impact on Israeli children’s aggression of expo- sure to violence in four social ecological settings: family, school, neighborhood and political conflicts. The effects of exposure to vi- olence in these settings were analyzed separately for the two major ethnic communities in...

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