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Citizen Relationship Management

A Study of CRM in Government


Alexander Schellong

This study explores Customer Relationship Management (CRM) in government. Based on an interdisciplinary literature review and multiple-case study design, a model of Citizen Relationship Management (CiRM) is developed and discussed. The case studies explore the perceptions of CRM/CiRM by administrators, elected officials and consultants as well as its implementation and impact on the municipal level and in a multijurisdictional environment in the United States. Although the explorative part of the study focuses broadly on a theoretical conceptualization of CiRM, the immediate empirical referent of research are the 311 initiatives in the City of Baltimore, the City of Chicago, the City of New York and Miami-Dade County. Thus, the results help administrators and researchers to convey the idea and challenges of 311 well. The study shows that CRM is to a certain extent only partly able to make novel contributions to currently active reform movements in government. In addition, the study’s findings support the idea that CiRM provides the means to a different kind of public participation.


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Appendix B - Coding 167


167 Appendix B - Coding Open coding (initial pre-coding set: 76 nodes) 311 911 Baltimore BPR / BPA Budget Call Center Implementation Call Center Operation Call Centers (pre311) Challenges Challenges (Overcoming, Solving) Change Change Management Channels Chicago CiRM CiRM definition CiRM Market CiRM Motivation for Citizen Behaviour Citizen Empowerment Citizen Insights Citizen Interaction Citizen-oriented organisation City of Miami Closed Loop Collaboration Communication (Lack/Importance) Costs Counter (Agency) CRM (culture - Lack of) CRM (culture) CRM (Private vs. Public) CRM analytical CRM Europe CRM operational CRM other CRM Software CRM Vision Cross-/Up-selling Customer Lifetime Value Customer orientation Customer Satisfaction Customer Service eGovernment Employees feedback/innovation IVR Knowledge Sharing Knowledgebase Latent Demand Leadership Marketing Miami-Dade County Multi-channel Multi-jurisdictional issues New Public Management New York City One-Stop Performance Management Personalization Privacy Quality Control Relationship - EO C Relationship - PA C Relationship - PA EO Relationship Pa Pa Segmentation Self Service Services Siebel CRM Strategic Planning Survey Technology Technology (Issues-Challenges) TQM Training Web: Portal 168 Open coding (final set: 224 nodes) 211 311 411 911 Access Accountability Admin 311 perception Agreements/ Contracts Backend - Front-end Integration Baltimore Bloomberg Bloomberg, Emma BPR / BPA Budget Call Center Implementation Call Center Operation Call Center/Contact Center front face issue Call Centers (pre311) Call Taker as Advocate/Navigator Call takers Call Volume Call/Contact Center Manager Case Management Centralization Challenges Challenges (Overcoming, Solving) Change Change - 311 impact Change - Loss of resources Change - Public Servants Change - Role of Leadership Change (Organizational) Change (People) Change (Process) Change Management Channels...

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