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Citizen Relationship Management

A Study of CRM in Government


Alexander Schellong

This study explores Customer Relationship Management (CRM) in government. Based on an interdisciplinary literature review and multiple-case study design, a model of Citizen Relationship Management (CiRM) is developed and discussed. The case studies explore the perceptions of CRM/CiRM by administrators, elected officials and consultants as well as its implementation and impact on the municipal level and in a multijurisdictional environment in the United States. Although the explorative part of the study focuses broadly on a theoretical conceptualization of CiRM, the immediate empirical referent of research are the 311 initiatives in the City of Baltimore, the City of Chicago, the City of New York and Miami-Dade County. Thus, the results help administrators and researchers to convey the idea and challenges of 311 well. The study shows that CRM is to a certain extent only partly able to make novel contributions to currently active reform movements in government. In addition, the study’s findings support the idea that CiRM provides the means to a different kind of public participation.


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Appendix C - TQM 171


171 Appendix C - TQM Deming’s (1986) 14 points 1. Create constancy of purpose to improve product and service. 2. Adopt new philosophy for new economic age by management learning responsibilities and taking leadership for change. 3. Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality; eliminate the need for mass inspection by building quality into the product. 4. End awarding business on price, instead minimize total cost and move towards single suppli- ers for items. 5. Improve constantly and forever the system of production and service to improve quality and productivity and to decrease costs. 6. Institute training on the job. 7. Institute leadership; supervision should be to help to do a better job; overhaul supervision of management and production workers. 8. Drive out fear so that all may work effectively for the organization. 9. Break down barriers between departments; research, design, sales and production must work together to foresee problems in production and use. 10. Eliminate slogans, exhortations, and numerical targets for the workforce, such as zero defects or new productivity levels. Such exhortations are diversory as the bulk of the problems belong to the system and are beyond the power of the workforce. 11. Eliminate quotas or work standards, and management by objectivity or numerical goals; sub- stitute leadership. 12. Remove barriers that rob people of their right to pride workmanship; hourly workers, man- agement and engineering; eliminate annual or merit ratings and management by objective. 13. Institute a vigorous education and self-improvement program. 14. Put everyone in the...

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