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Critique and Apologetics

Jews, Christians and Pagans in Antiquity

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Edited By Jörg Ulrich, David Brakke and Anders-Christian Jacobsen

This book contains 13 contributions from an international conference held in 2007. The idea of the conference was to investigate the confrontations and the cultural, philosophical and religious exchange between different religious groups in antiquity and to establish a more comprehensive theory about what apologetics was considered to be both in the context of antiquity and from the perspective of modern scholarship: is it possible to define a literary genre called apologetics? Is it possible to talk about apologetics as a certain kind of discourse which is not limited to a special kind of texts? Which argumentative strategies are implied in apologetic discourses? The essays in this volume present a new approach to these questions.

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Jews and Christians in Conflict? Polemical and SatiricalElements in Revelation 2-3 111

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Jews and Christians in Conflict? Polemical and Satirical Elements in Revelation 2-3 Eve-Marie Becker 1. Introduction 1.1. The Topic The topic of this paper: 'Conflicts among Jews and Christians in New Testament times' deals with historical and regional aspects of the problem: historically we have to think of particular dates', such as 39-41 (the Caligula-crisis)2, 49 (the edict of Claudius)3, 70 (destruc- tion of the Temple in Jerusalem), 132-135 CE (Second Jewish War = Bar Kokhba-Revolt)4 which influence the Jewish5 as well as the early ' Cf. e.g. J. Maier, Zwischen den Testamenten. Geschichte und Religion in der Zeit des zweiten Tempels, NEB.E 3, Würzburg 1990, 161-190. 'Cf. P. Bilde, The Roman Emperor Gaius (Caligula)'s Attempt to Erect his Statue in the Temple of Jerusalem, in: StTh 32 (1978), 67-93. Cf. also: G. Theissen, Lokalkolorit und Zeitgeschichte in den Evangelien. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der synoptischen Tradition, Freiburg 21992, 146-153. 3 Cf. H. Botermann, Das Judenedikt des Kaisers Claudius. Römischer Staat und Chri- stiani im 1. Jahrhundert, Herrnes. E 71, Stuttgart 1996. Cf. also: J. Engberg, Impul- sore Chresto. Opposition to Christianity in the Roman Empire ca. 50-250 AD, ECCA 2, Frankfurt 2007, 89-106. 'The revolts 115-117 CE mainly involve the Jewish communities outside Palestine (e.g. Northern Africa, Egypt, Syria). P. Schäfer, Der Bar Kokhba-Aufstand. Studien zum zweiten jüdischen Krieg gegen Rom, TSAJ 1, Tübingen 1981; P. Schäfer (ed.), The Bar Kokhba War Reconsidered, TSAJ 100, Tübingen 2003; W. Eck,...

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