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Leveraging Knowledge Communication for Innovation

Framework, Methods and Applications of Social Network Analysis in Research and Development

Series:

Tobias Müller-Prothmann

The paradigm of social network analysis (SNA) is widely recognized as a potential approach to analyze, evaluate, and influence communication processes. The author argues that SNA proves useful as a theoretical concept and as a practical tool for knowledge communication in research and development (R&D). The context of innovative knowledge generation in organizational R&D environments is introduced very broadly with reference to the existing literature. The pragmatic approach of networks is outlined as a powerful concept to grasp the social relationships between individuals as well as between social aggregates for conceptual and analytical purposes. Based on three case studies, methods of SNA are simplified and illustrated according to their basic steps to meet practical needs and show their usefulness for business practice. Moreover, the book provides examples for interventions and follow-up activities to improve processes of organizational knowledge communication based on SNA.

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List of Tables xi List of Figures xiii 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Goal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.3 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2 Perceptions of Knowledge, Knowledge Society and Knowledge Management 9 2.1 The Emerging Knowledge Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.1.1 Basic Descriptions and Characteristics of the Knowledge Society . . . . . . . 9 2.1.2 Knowledge Society and the Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2.2 Perspectives, Conceptions and Social Construction of Knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.2.1 Preliminary Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.2.2 Epistemology of Knowledge Sociology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.2.3 Data—Information—Knowledge: Knowledge as Capacity for Action . . . . . 16 2.2.4 Knowledge as a Symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2.2.5 Social Construction of Knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.2.6 A Network Model of Knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.2.7 Expertise and Specialized Knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2.2.8 The Production of Innovative Knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2.2.9 Knowledge and Habitus or: Practical Knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2.2.10 Knowledge as an Empirical Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2.2.11 The Framework of a Pragmatic Conception of Knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . 26 2.2.12 Knowledge and its Management? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 2.3 Constitutional Conditions of Knowledge Management and its Institutionalization . . . 30 2.3.1 Sociological Institutional Analysis and Knowledge Management . . . . . . . . 30 2.3.2 The Principle Idea of Knowledge Management: Knowledge as a Competitive Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 2.3.3 Knowledge Management and its Frame of Reference: Flourishing Knowledge Creation Environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 2.3.4 Knowledge Management and Sanctioning Mechanisms: In Search of Measur- ing Knowledge Assets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 2.3.5 Consequences: Technology Orientation and Capitalization of Knowledge . . . 34 2.3.6 Competition between Principles and other Interdependencies: The Rise ofMul- tiple Conflicts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 2.3.7 Current State and Future Developments of the Institutionalization of Knowl- edge Management: Summary and Outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 2.4 Today’s Knowledge Management Practices and Future Perspectives...

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