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Systematic Musicology: Empirical and Theoretical Studies

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Edited By Albrecht Schneider and Arne von Ruschkowski

This volume contains articles most of which present empirical studies in the field of systematic musicology. Contributions in particular deal with aspects of melody including modeling and computer-assisted analysis as well as with various issues in sound and music perception, musical acoustics and psychoacoustics. Topics range from loudness perception in ‘Techno’ music to sound radiation in classical singing styles, and from timbre research to wave field synthesis and room acoustics. One focus of this volume is on pop and rock music, another is on ethno and folk music. In addition to empirical investigations, theoretical and methodological issues are addressed including some fundamental concepts in ethnomusicology and folk music scholarship.

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Tim Ziemer: Psychoacoustic Effects in Wave Field Synthesis Applications

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153 Tim Ziemer Psychoacoustic Effects in Wave Field Synthesis Applications Abstract The present article compares ideas and methods of conventional audio techniques with wave field synthesis. Considering application areas and resulting needs of the listeners, psychoacoustic deliberations are derived to improve wave field synthesis, especially for musical performances with a small number of loudspeakers. A listening test shows the potential of combining wave field synthesis with systematically involved psychoacoustic deliberations. Introduction Wave field synthesis (WFS) is an audio reproducing technique which aims to physically recreate a natural wave field in a wide listening area. So far WFS is still in a state of research and development, not many WFS systems are available on the open market1. Wave field synthesis systems have numerous potential application areas2: – Laboratories for matters of research and development – Cinema/Theatre – Clubs/Concert halls – Conference Rooms/Lecture halls – Car – Virtual reality environments/Planetaria – Home cinema/music installation To date most of these areas are served by conventional audio systems such as stereo or 5.1 surround. Functional principle of conventional audio systems Conventional audio systems like stereo and 5.1 surround are usually based on either amplitude panning or time based panning between a pair of loudspeakers. Sometimes a combination of both panning techniques is used. As a result a virtual source (“phantom source”) can be placed on the connection line between the two loudspeakers (the “loud- speaker base”). The wave field created by this technique is different from a natural wave field which would emerge from a real source at that position. But...

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