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Educational Policy Transfer in an Era of Globalization: Theory – History – Comparison

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Jeremy Rappleye

As education becomes increasingly global, the processes and politics of transfer have become a central focus of research. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of contemporary theoretical and analytical work aimed at exploring international educational reform and reveals the myriad ways that globalization is now fundamentally altering our dominant conceptions. It illustrates how transfer has emerged to play a central part in policy formation processes worldwide, but also reveals critical differences between developed countries and aid-dependent developing states. This substantial breadth, combined with a level of empirical depth absent from current research, opens up new vistas through which to understand globalization, educational policy formation, and the modalities of transfer. In doing so, the book pushes for a reevaluation of several core assumptions of transfer and educational research more generally.

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Figure I.1 Study Design and Chapter Outline ............................... 13 Figure I.2 ‘World as Aggregated Action’ ..................................... 29 Figure I.3 ‘World as Enactment of Culture’ ................................. 30 Figure I.4 Visual Representation of Cowen’s Ideal-Type Models and Transitologies ........................................... 53 Figure I.5 Spectrum of Educational Transfer ............................... 72 Figure I.6 Four Stages of Policy Borrowing in Education ............ 74 Figure I.7 Filters in the Borrowing Process .................................. 74 Figure I.8 Examining the Oxford Models, Overlaid on Cowen’s Ideal-Type ..................................................... 81 Figure I.9 Transnational Reforms and Reform Debates ............. 101 Figure I.10 Comparative Case Study Analysis and the Study of Globalization ......................................................... 111 Figure II.1 Japanese Educational History in Terms of Ideal-Types and Transitologies .................................. 128 Figure II.2 Japan’s Policy Reforms: five waves in the shift to late modernity .................... 133 Figure II.3 Excerpt from Redesigning Compulsory Education in a New Era ............................................. 199 Figure II.4 Educational Transfer Tributaries in Japan, Past and Present ......................................................... 236 Figure III.1 Nepal’s Educational History in Terms of Ideal-Types and Transitologies .................................. 242 Figure III.2 Nepal’s Policy Reforms: five waves in the shift to late modernity .................... 244 XIV Rappleye: Transfer in an Era of Globalization Figure III.3 Modalities and Select Examples of Civil Society and NGO Activities in Nepal ..................................... 339 Figure III.3a Varied Channels of Aid to NGOs .............................. 340 Figure III.4 Educational Transfer Tributaries in Nepal, Past and Present ......................................................... 362 Figure IV.1 Spectrum of Educational Transfer ............................. 400 Figure IV.2 Revised Spectrum of Educational Transfer ................ 401 Figure IV.3 Revised Spectrum Utilized to Classify Multiple Threads and Pre-Policy Text Complexity .................. 402 Figure IV.4 Preliminary Sketch of the Changing Nature of Educational Transfer .................................................. 410

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