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Anti-Judaism on the Way from Judaism to Christianity


Peter Landesmann

The differing beliefs that emerged between Christianity and Judaism, especially in the first two centuries AD, were mainly caused by the introduction of heavenly beings in the Jewish religion. This resulted in the predominance of a messiah, who will be sent by God as salvator mundi. Mainly Paul preached and practiced the conversion of pagans to Christianity, without obligating them to practice the Jewish law. In the course of time the baptized pagans represented the mainstream of Christianity which caused a conflict between them and those Jews who practiced the Jewish law but also believed in Jesus as the Messiah. The development of these tendencies is described in this book.


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3. The Holy Spirit


The Holy Spirit is mentioned in Mt 1:18 as having been instrumental in the pregnancy of Mary: "Now the birth of Jesus the Messiah took place in this way. When his mother Mary had been engaged to Joseph, but before they lived to- gether, she was found to be with child from the Holy Spirit." (Mat 1:18 NRS). The term "Holy Spirit" is mentioned several times in the Hebrew Bible. The fol- lowing examples show that the "Holy Spirit" is responsible for inspiration from God: "But they rebelled and grieved his holy spirit; therefore he became their en- emy; he himself fought against them. Then they remembered the days of old, of Moses his servant. Where is the one who brought them up out of the sea with the shepherds of his flock? Where is the one who put within them his holy spirit" (Isa 63:10-11 NRS). The Hebrew term "Ruach HaKodesch" which appears several times in Rabbi writings, is used both in this passage and in the following Psalm verse: "Do not cast me away from your presence, and do not take your holy spirit from me" (Psa 51:11 NRS). The expression "divine spirit" is used in the following quotes; an expression that equally signifies "divine inspiration": "See, I have called by name Bezalel son of Uri son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah, and I have filled him with divine spirit, with ability, intelligence, and knowledge in every kind of craft" (Exo 31:...

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