5. The Deuteronomic historical book
God personally took action, above all, in the Deuteronomic historical book, which comprises the Books of Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, 1 Samuel and 2 Samuel, and 1 Kings and 2 Kings, along with certain passages from the Book of Genesis. The aforementioned books, which were edited by the "Deuteronomist"3 and which rarely mention angels, probably reflect a degree of rationalization, e.g. the sacred temple is the place wherein the name of God dwells (Deu 12:5.11. and 21) but not God himself (1 Kin 8:13.). Furthermore, God spoke from his seat in heaven to Israel "out of the fire" (Deu 5:4 and 9 et seq, NRS) on the mountain, whereas this event is still described in the Book of Exodus as if God had come to Mount Sinai, where Moses had heard his voice (Exo 19). The ark was described in Deu 10:1et seqq merely as a container for the tablets containing the Ten Commandments, whereas it is still acknowledged as the "mercy seat" of God in Exo 25:22 (NRS) and 1Sam 4:4 (NRS).4 Passages from Exo 23:20-33 are also quoted in Deu 6 and 7, albeit without the appearance of the angel who features prominently in the Book of Exodus. Everything is brought into being by the presence of God himself.5
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