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Anti-Judaism on the Way from Judaism to Christianity


Peter Landesmann

The differing beliefs that emerged between Christianity and Judaism, especially in the first two centuries AD, were mainly caused by the introduction of heavenly beings in the Jewish religion. This resulted in the predominance of a messiah, who will be sent by God as salvator mundi. Mainly Paul preached and practiced the conversion of pagans to Christianity, without obligating them to practice the Jewish law. In the course of time the baptized pagans represented the mainstream of Christianity which caused a conflict between them and those Jews who practiced the Jewish law but also believed in Jesus as the Messiah. The development of these tendencies is described in this book.


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18. The redemption


This expression is used with multiple meanings in the Hebrew Bible: For exam- ple, in Exo 6:6, redemption means release from Egyptian capture. Psa 25:22 states: "Redeem Israel, O God, out of all its troubles" (Psa 25:22 NRS). Psa 30:3 et seq links redemption to an individual plight: "Incline your ear to me; rescue me speedily. Be a rock of refuge for me, a strong fortress to save me. You are indeed my rock and my fortress; for your name's sake lead me and guide me, take me out of the net that is hidden for me, for you are my refuge. Into your hand I commit my spirit; you have redeemed me, O LORD, faithful God" (Psa 31:2-5 NRS). The term "redemption" is given a new meaning in Psa 130:8b, by expressing the expectation that God "will redeem Israel from all its iniquities". This redemption from punishment for sins that have been committed is first induced by offering sacrifices in Israel, whereby different sacrifices were made in atonement, depending on the sin committed. The following is an example: "And you shall bring to the LORD, as your pen- alty for the sin that you have committed, a female from the flock, a sheep or a goat, as a sin offering; and the priest shall make atonement on your behalf for your sin" (Lev 5:6 NRS). This sentence contains an important statement, in that atonement comes, not directly from God, but through a...

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