Chapter 5: Education for Sustainable Development Indicators, Competences and Science Education
Chapter 5 Education for Sustainable Development Indicators, Competences and Science Education Ana Capelo, Maria Conceição Santos, Maria Arminda Pedrosa Abstract Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) aims at encouraging changes required to promote sustainable development. Sustainable development includes three dimensions, i.e. social and economic developments, along with environ- mental protection, each one involving several interacting variables. Therefore, adequate tools are required to help monitor and evaluate those changes with regard to ESD at local, national and regional levels. Within this perspective, monitoring and assessment instruments related to ESD indicators are relevant to clarify which educational approaches are necessary (in particular, in formal edu- cation) and to evaluate the quality of these approaches in terms of their relevance to promote sustainable development. As the integration of ESD in formal educa- tion and in each geopolitical context has been recognized as important, it is vital to clarify the meaning of ESD indicators (ESDI), as well as the criteria underly- ing their selection. By allowing evaluation the extent to which education, in each particular subject, is aligned within ESD perspectives, the use of ESD indicators is crucial to help implement the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). In this chapter, the purposes and meanings attributed to ESDI are analyzed, the criteria adopted by some countries and regions are outlined to help select a set of ESDI for the European geopolitical context, specifically for the formal science educa- tion sector. These ESDI selected are meant to be used by educational policy makers, science curriculum developers, science...
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