A Protocol-based and Architecture-based Perspective
2. Fundamentals of Computer Networks, theInternet and Next Generation Networks
2. Fundamentals of Computer Networks, the Internet and Next Generation Networks Before embarking on an investigation of traffic management and quality of service (QoS) control together with their analysis and design, this chapter starts with a brief description of the basis reference models used for describing the communication systems. It then gives a selection of important applications driving the future of the Internet and the Next Generation Networks toward fixed mobile convergence. Finally, consequences and a review of significant aspects in the computer network planning. 2.1 Network Reference Models Computer networks do not remain fixed at any single point of time. They must evolve to accommodate changes in the underlying technologies upon which they are based and changes in the service requirements placed on them by applications. Designing a network to meet these requirements is no small task. In order to help deal with this complexity, the OSI (Open Systems Connection) reference model and the TCP/IP reference model have been developed. These reference models define a common network architecture that guides the design and implementation of networks. 2.1.1 OSI Reference Model The OSI reference model developed by the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) provides a fundamental theoretical model for partitioning the network functionality into seven layers, where the functionality assigned to a given layer is implemented in a set of protocols. Each layer offers certain services to the higher layers, shielding these layers from details of how the offered services are actually implemented [Tan-2003]. Between each pair of adjacent layers...
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