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Innovative Places in Europe

Research Clustering, Co-Patenting Networks and the Growth of Regions


Julian Phillip Christ

Regional disparities and spatial clustering are ubiquitous in today’s world. This study contributes with empirical findings on the distribution of European research and patenting activity since the 1980s at the regional level. Besides a general theoretical part, it offers a quantitative clustering analysis, which makes use of EPO patent applications and a harmonized regional and technological classification. Moreover, the pan-European study incorporates a structural analysis of inter-regional co-patenting networks at the regional and technological level that covers the 1990s and 2000s. Finally, European regional income and growth disparities are addressed by placing emphasis on the spatial distribution of research activity and the regional settlement structure.


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List of Abbreviations


2SLS Two-stage least squares A Atkinson index a.k.a. also known as AT Austria AIC Akaike information criterion BBR Bundesamt fu¨r Bauwesen und Raumordnung BE Belgium CEEC/CEE-10 Central and Eastern European Countries CES Constant elasticity of substitution CH Switzerland CMSA Consolidated metropolitan statistical area CP Core-periphery CRS Constant returns to scale CY Cyprus CZ Czech Republic DE Germany DK Denmark DPMA Deutsches Patent- und Markenamt e.g. exempli gratia EC European Community EE Estonia EEG Evolutionary economic geography emp. employment EPC European Patent Convention EPO European patent Office ERA European Research Area ERDF European Regional Development Fund ES Spain ESDA Exploratory spatial data analysis ESF European Social Fund ESPON European Spatial Planning Observation Network EU European Union EU-15 European Union of 15 member states EU-25 Enlarged European Union of 25 member states EU-27 Enlarged European Union of 27 member states FC Footloose capital FE Footloose entrepreneur xx List of Abbreviations FI Finland FR France GDP Gross domestic product GE Generalized entropy index GINI Gini Index GIS Geographical information system GLOC Locational Gini GMM Generalized method of moments GR Greece GSPACE Spatial Gini GVA Gross value added HHI Herfindahl-Hirschman index HME Home market effect HRST Human resources in science and technology HT High-technology HU Hungary i.a. inter alia ICT Information and communications technology ID Identifier IE Ireland i.e. id est innov. innovation IPC International Patent Classification IPR Intellectual property rights ISI Fraunhofer-Institut fu¨r System- und Innovationsforschung IT Italy IV Instrumental variable JPO Japan Patent Office...

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