International Baccalaureate in America
Part B: The background to the attack
The mainstreaming of ‘global education’ Understanding ‘global education’ ‘Global education’ is a complex and controversial area of schooling and instruc- tion, involving differing models of implementation within schools (Becker, 1979). A useful framework for conceptualizing what is meant by ‘global educa- tion’ is provided by Kniep (1986) who suggests such an education has four key features. Firstly, it involves the study of diverse human values. Secondly, it in- volves a study of different economic and political systems. There is a further study of global issues and problems, plus the study of the history of contact and co-operation among people, cultures, and nations. Such an education thus re- quires knowledge within both a national and international context. It also re- quires knowledge of how other people (in other countries) act and think. A second model comes from Case (1993) who proposed that ‘global educa- tion’ involves two key dimensions. Firstly, there is the need for acquiring knowledge of the world and how it works. Secondly, there is a need to gain an orientation of the world (i.e. gain a view of how the world thinks and acts). Put together, these two dimensions should help students cope with emerging global realities. A third framework for conceptualizing what constitutes a ‘global edu- cation’ comes from Alger and Harf (1985); such an education requires a mixed knowledge of global values, transactions, actors, procedures, and mechanisms. Kilpatrick’s (2010) Doctoral study into the implementation of ‘global educa- tion’ in two schools in Massachusetts (including one IBDP...
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