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Philosophical and Religious Sources of Modern Culture

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Jacek Grzybowski

Europe is the community of nations which, in the favorable conditions of a small yet extremely diversified continent, took over and developed the legacy of Greco-Roman civilization transformed and enriched by Christianity. Philosophy, theology, liturgy, religion, national culture and tradition are still manifestations of this heritage. Europe is not merely a region or geographical location. It is an idea that expresses cultural and social ideals. The nature of Europeanness is not defined by race or place but by freedom and culture in the broad sense. Latin Europe created a sphere of civilization. Though ridden by contrasts and differences, not merely an organic unity was established but also a unity of a spiritual kind by accentuating and merging of values all Europeans have in common. This was also made possible by Christianity whose ethos came to pervade a multiplicity of socio-cultural phenomena.

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Joanna Skurzak: The liturgy as a source of modern culture. The philosophical proposal of Jean-Yves Lacoste

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The liturgy as a source of modern culture. The philosophical proposal of Jean-Yves Lacoste Joanna Skurzak Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in Warsaw (CSWU) The Faculty of Christian Philosophy Introduction "There is no culture in history, and it seems there can be no culture in the future without a religion"1. This statement by Erich Fromm is a very good illustration of the interdependence between culture and religion. In spite of tendencies to- wards secularization in today’s world, most people do profess a religion of some kind and have beliefs regarding religious issues such as salvation, God or trans- cendence. Even if they do not declare themselves members of a specific creed they are able to relate to a transcendent reality. Analyzing this issue from a his- torical point of view, we are able to see how over the course of thousands of years and in various parts of the world culture and religion developed highly varied and complex mutual relations. For, as representatives of the Lublin School remark, religion is indeed the focal point of every culture and culture taken as a whole.2 One has but to mention the absolute wealth of religious art which constitutes the basis of European culture. Great works of music, Mozart, Bach or Beethoven’s famous masses, were brought forth within the context of this relation to the sacred, as were the greatest works of architecture, such as ca- thedrals, construed to serve but one purpose: to give man an even deeper experi- ence of his...

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