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Philosophical and Religious Sources of Modern Culture

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Edited By Jacek Grzybowski

Europe is the community of nations which, in the favorable conditions of a small yet extremely diversified continent, took over and developed the legacy of Greco-Roman civilization transformed and enriched by Christianity. Philosophy, theology, liturgy, religion, national culture and tradition are still manifestations of this heritage. Europe is not merely a region or geographical location. It is an idea that expresses cultural and social ideals. The nature of Europeanness is not defined by race or place but by freedom and culture in the broad sense. Latin Europe created a sphere of civilization. Though ridden by contrasts and differences, not merely an organic unity was established but also a unity of a spiritual kind by accentuating and merging of values all Europeans have in common. This was also made possible by Christianity whose ethos came to pervade a multiplicity of socio-cultural phenomena.

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Rev. Jan Sochoń: Faith or spirituality? New challenges of postmodernity

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Faith or spirituality? New challenges of postmodernity Rev. Jan Sochoń Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in Warsaw (CSWU) The Faculty of Christian Philosophy Many people have trouble with the modern God Karen Armstrong 1 Metaphysics of the subject Many of us have probably already come to accept the world as postmodern, abandoning all illusion as to its permanence and predictability. After all, there are no fixed norms of action or behaviour that are not strictly connected with individual rationalization, with that which happens in the privatissimum, the most secretive retreat of monadic subjectivity. Moreover, the senses themselves can no longer lay a claim to ontic objectivity and certitude. It has become obvi- ous that perception is subjective, freeing, in contradiction of Aristotle, percep- tive experience from the necessity of direct contact with the real.2 This chorus is joined by a sizeable group of philosophers according to whom the human intel- lect is incapable of grasping being in all its complexity and structural magnifi- cence, and is capable only of heaping up metaphors and echoing interpretations, of acting within the sphere of signs – signs which most of the time do not refer to any genuine reality (including divine reality, as already suggested by St. Au- gustine's post-ancient semiotics), but stop with themselves; they are merely simulacra, or become known as Derrida’s indeterminables. The modern subject appears as “empty, split, a-substantial, irreflective”3, unable to handle the grow- ing consequences of its own helplessness. 1 Karen Armstrong, Spór o Boga. Czym naprawd...

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