Chapter 5: Management and the primates
Chapter 5 Management and the primates Introduction DNA tests have confirmed the hypothesis that people are very closely related to chimpanzees. Only one percent of the genome of Homo sapiens is different from the genome of Pan troglodytes153. Should such a close relationship not also result in similar behaviour154? Management, according to the classical definition by H. Fayol, consists of planning, organising, commanding and controlling 155 . The fact that these activities are characteristic solely of humans has been, since the moment the theory of management was created, so obvious that it has never been questioned. However modern discoveries of evolutionary psychology and primatology suggest that most social skills people possess are of biological origin, thus also organisation and management are natural processes156. One could advance a thesis that the ability to organise is the foundation of social life, not only of humans, but also of numerous species of ape157. The aim of this chapter is to analyse the basic organisational skills that have developed in our closest relatives – apes, mostly chimpanzees and bonobos – and that have been perfected by Homo sapiens. It seems that organisational skills have been developing in the course of the primate evolution. Although the possibility of following the development of organisational processes in our pre- human ancestors (Australopithecus, Homo habilis, Homo erectus) is very limited, in searching for the biological roots of organisational processes one can still use the rich empirical materials that exist, based on the observation of chimpanzees. Analysis of this will prove the...
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