An Interdisciplinary Study
Edited By Sunday Paul Bako and Frank Olwari
Plant-based protein product for improved human health and nutrition security in sub-Saharan Africa (Ngozi E. Anozie) 38
PLANT-BASED PROTEIN PRODUCT FOR IMPROVED HUMAN HEALTH AND NUTRITION SECURITY IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA Ngozi E. Anozie Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria Abstract Animal-based protein products in sub-Saharan Africa, where its consumption is high, have been attributed to a wide range of nutritionally challenged human diseases such as kidney failure, cardio-vascular disease, diabetes, stroke, obesity and crohins disease. The environmental effects of animal husbandry pertaining to methane and nitrous gas emission, climate change, soil and degradation of biodiversity water and aquatic life pollution is another major hazard limitations against dependence on animal-based protein products. Plant-based protein products offers a better alternative in terms of food security, human health security, climate-change reduction through carbon dioxide sequestration and being soil and environmentally friendly in its productivity and is hereby strongly recommended. Introduction The environmental problems associated with animal production as a result of the fecal waste is a major threat in some regions including sub-Saharan Africa. The eutrophication of water-ways with nitrogen and phosphorus can adversely affect aquatic organisms through nitric acid acidification, overgrowth of algae and subsequent hypnosis, poisoning by nitrogen, uncontrolled plant growth and sedimentation. (Smith, 2003; Camargo and Alonse, 2006). Also the volatilization of amino nitrogen from urine and feaces can reduce soil calcium, magnesium and potassium leading to increased risk of root damage, over growth and die-back in affected trees (Lee & Dollard, 1994; Iroec, 2001). The fecal material also contributes to their microbiological load. Flies and odors associated with beef cattle, feedlots are other nuisances which can merge...
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