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Promoting Non-Animal Protein Sources in Sub-Saharan Africa

An Interdisciplinary Study

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Edited By Sunday Paul Bako and Frank Olwari

The research results point to the need of sustaining plant protein sources to large populations in sub-Saharan Africa that have no access to meat. Proteins are essential components of the human body and therefore indispensable for human life. Malnutrition and diseases are often caused because of the lack of sufficient proteins. Since animal sources of protein are out of reach to more than 85% of the people of sub-Saharan Africa, the challenge is to make protein otherwise accessible, available and affordable to the ordinary man. Owing to the influence of climate change and population explosion, the situation at discussion will exacerbate within the coming decade. Therefore non-animal protein must be brought into focus in order to prevent major diseases of malnutrition.

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Plant-based protein product for improved human health and nutrition security in sub-Saharan Africa (Ngozi E. Anozie) 38

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PLANT-BASED PROTEIN PRODUCT FOR IMPROVED HUMAN HEALTH AND NUTRITION SECURITY IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA Ngozi E. Anozie Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria Abstract Animal-based protein products in sub-Saharan Africa, where its consumption is high, have been attributed to a wide range of nutritionally challenged human diseases such as kidney failure, cardio-vascular disease, diabetes, stroke, obesity and crohins disease. The environmental effects of animal husbandry pertaining to methane and nitrous gas emission, climate change, soil and degradation of biodiversity water and aquatic life pollution is another major hazard limitations against dependence on animal-based protein products. Plant-based protein products offers a better alternative in terms of food security, human health security, climate-change reduction through carbon dioxide sequestration and being soil and environmentally friendly in its productivity and is hereby strongly recommended. Introduction The environmental problems associated with animal production as a result of the fecal waste is a major threat in some regions including sub-Saharan Africa. The eutrophication of water-ways with nitrogen and phosphorus can adversely affect aquatic organisms through nitric acid acidification, overgrowth of algae and subsequent hypnosis, poisoning by nitrogen, uncontrolled plant growth and sedimentation. (Smith, 2003; Camargo and Alonse, 2006). Also the volatilization of amino nitrogen from urine and feaces can reduce soil calcium, magnesium and potassium leading to increased risk of root damage, over growth and die-back in affected trees (Lee & Dollard, 1994; Iroec, 2001). The fecal material also contributes to their microbiological load. Flies and odors associated with beef cattle, feedlots are other nuisances which can merge...

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