Edited By Mirja-Tytti Talib, Jyrki Loima, Heini Paavola and Sanna Patrikainen
Multicultural education and intercultural education: Is there a difference Gunilla Holm and Harriet Zilliacus 11
11 Multicultural education and intercultural education: Is there a difference Gunilla Holm and Harriet Zilliacus Introduction Multicultural and intercultural education has been much discussed and re- searched for quite some time. Multicultural education and intercultural educa- tion are often used as synonyms (Nieto, 2006; Hill, 2007), while others indicate that there is a difference between the two. In the multicultural and intercultural literature it is often unclear what the concepts mean and whether they are refer- ring to the same or different things. Often the difference in use seems mostly geographical. In Europe the preferred term is intercultural education while espe- cially the United States but also the rest of North America, Australia and Asia use the term multicultural education (Hill, 2007; Leeman & Reid, 2006). How- ever, in Europe there are differences between countries as well. For example, in Sweden and the Netherlands intercultural education is used while in Great Brit- ain and Finland multicultural education is the commonly used term. Interest- ingly multicultural and intercultural education are often used as if the terms are universally understood and referring to only one type of education. As can be seen in Sleeter and Grant (2003) multicultural education can take many different directions. Likewise intercultural education is sometimes mostly focused on in- tercultural relations but at other times more structural issues are part of the fo- cus. We first discuss the origins and developments of the two approaches in Europe and the U.S. We then analyze the two in relation to each...
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