Chapter IV: Governments
187 Chapter IV Governments The problems surrounding governments are multifarious, raising issues such as roles and competences, structures and types, legislative-executive relations, con- stituting conditions, etc. The question R. Dahl asks: “Who governs?”391 requires answers to questions such as: “What is the government? What is its role and what are its competences in the political system? The term government is used with many different mean- ings in Great Britain: Her Majesty's government, cabinet government, shadow government, party government, yet it is not used in the United States at all “where the President’s government means firstly administration and it contains both the presidency, as a role and a device, and the federal bureaucracy that is dependent on the executive”392. What we consider as being significant from the point of view of definition (to govern = to lead) is the fact that most of the time the government is identified with the executive power, a power that, over time, has changed significantly. 4.1 Government Organization It is well-known that, before J. Locke – who presages a division of power into legislative power, executive power and federative power – but especially before Montesquieu (the theoretician behind the division of power into legislative power, executive power and judicial power and of their “philosophy” through the “effect of freedom”), power was exercised by the sovereign (monist power). Pasquino writes: “The monarch ruled and governed, hired and fired the staff to which he entrusted political and administrative tasks, issued laws and sentences, granted amnesties and pardons. As...
You are not authenticated to view the full text of this chapter or article.
This site requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books or journals.
Do you have any questions? Contact us.Or login to access all content.