Part II: Effecting Change 41
Part II Effecting Change This page intentionally left blank WORKING WITH GROUPS INTRODUCTION Sara Catterall Practitioners in the field of learner autonomy are faced with what might at first sight appear to be a paradox. They are concerned with intervening in an individual's learning in order to enhance the individual's ability to learn without intervention. The options for intervening can be identified by considering the dimensions of autonomy discussed in the Introduction to Part I. Some researchers choose to focus on cognitive elements, such as language learning tactics and language awareness, and others on social elements, such as roles or patterns of interaction. The contributions in this section are united by a concern with effecting change in the behaviour of individuals who are learning in group settings. Such interventions tend to focus on behaviour that might be seen as universal. This does not imply that these authors are blind to the influence of context, or indeed of individual differences; rather, their focus reflects an interest in identifying solutions which apply to more than one context. The premise underlying their work is that certain learning behaviour can be associated with control over the learning process. Steven McDonough opens the discussion by considering our current state of knowledge on strategies for language learning. Andrew Cohen, and David Nunan, Jose Lai and Ken Keobke focus on selected learner strategies. Michael Mtiller-Verweyen concentrates on the design of learning materials to promote strategic competence in managing the learning process. The paper by Leni Dam and...
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