Policies and Practices
Edited By Yasemin Bayyurt and Yesim Bektas Cetinkaya
Part 4: English Language Education in the Turkish Socio-Cultural Context
Part 4 English Language Education in the Turkish Socio-Cultural Context 301 Chapter 16 Proposing a Model for English Language Education in the Turkish Sociocultural Context Yasemin Bayyurt, Boğaziçi University In today’s world, since the advent of the Internet, English has penetrated the lives of people in all sectors of life (Crystal, 2001; Norris, 2000). Almost everywhere in the world people use English to converse, to interpret technological information and instructions, to write business letters and e-mails, to read blogs written in other countries, to become, in effect, members of a digitalized international community. Since the1970s, informed and inspired by linguistic and socio-linguistic theo- ries, scholars have been studying new varieties of English, the spread of English around the world, and intelligibility issues in Global English, which, as an inter- national language, challenges the supremacy of British and American English (Crystal, 1985a, 1985b, 2003; Graddol, 1997, 1999; Kachru, 1992; Smith, 1992; Strevens, 1977, 1982, 1992). With the emergence of “new Englishes,” and inter- national projects to establish the norms of new forms of English, and dictionaries and scholarly books to describe the new forms, the notion that English belongs to one or two nations in the world has become an outdated paradigm (Braine, 2005; de Houwer & Wilton, 2011; Jenkins, 2007; Jenkins, Modiano & Seidlhofer, 2001;Kachru, 1992, 2005; Kachru & Nelson, 2006; Kirkpatrick, 2010; Saraceni, 2010; Seidlhofer, 2010, 2011). Almost three decades have passed since Kachru (1985) presented his concen- tric circles model. Despite some criticism, the model is still widely...
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