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Archetypes in Literatures and Cultures

Cultural and Regional Studies- In Collaboration with Sevinj Bakhysh and Izabella Horvath

Edited By Rahilya Geybullayeva

The formation of new countries after the collapse of the Soviet Union and the Eastern European block necessarily brings about an increased awareness of national identity and has given rise to more urgent attempts to define national literary and cultural facts. Among the facts to be determined are the circulation of similar cultural motifs, situations, symbols, plots, genres, words, and rituals. Such a situation gives rise to questions concerning the relationship between things that were constructed over centuries and relatively new archetypal plots and situations created by different authors, developed in different periods and in national literatures. For example, how does translation influence the migration of plots? Does the blurring of borders between sources and re-interpretations make it difficult to distinguish the original and the «kidnapped» texts? The forms of archetypes have changed and continue to change, creating a hyper-text. Taking these things into consideration, the question arises: «Where are the borders between an original text, influences, and plagiarism?»

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Part 3: Archetype as a Symbol and Image

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123 Part 3 Archetype as a Symbol and Image 125 Hamlet and Iskandar:1 The Breakdown of the Persona Archetype as a Condition for Identity Formation Gorkhmaz Guliyev (Azerbaijan) The well known and later vulgarised Shakespearian expression “all the world’s a stage, and all the men and women merely players” was revitalised by the analytic psychology of Carl Gustav Jung. The phrase could be interpreted in the light of the collective unconscious, and thus enrich and determine the principle of role- making in individual relationships. The framework of the collective unconscious establishes that the person is an actor as well as a spectator in the play called life, an actor directed by a community. The role of a human being is determined as soon as he is born, and the public defines the moral taboos by which he is com- pelled to play and is judged. The analysis of the theatrical metaphor based on principles of the analytic psychology of C. Jung shows that the Persona archetype, which serves the direc- tor, aka “society”, as the tool of control and submission, has a special place in the arsenal of the collective unconscious, which works as a guardian of the unity of a community. According to the Swiss psychologist, the etymology of the Persona is further evidence which demonstrates its primary meaning as a role. The word “Persona” came via Latin to European languages, and has an Etruscan origin meaning “a theatre mask”. However it was subjected to semantic transformation which...

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