On Cyber Threats and Information Warfare
Aggression between hackers
Hacktivism – or politically, religiously, ethnically or ideologically motivated hacking of opponents’ networks and servers – is a growing problem. Example of antagonistic activities include “defacement” of websites, where informa- tion is changed or removed, and distributed denial of service, DDoS, at- tacks that overload websites making them inaccessible. Hacktivists are by no means a uniform group, but consist of individuals and groups from all corners of the world. Some of them have only rudi- mentary skills in computing, but are driven by an intense belief in their cause. Others are smart, skilled and very experienced people, organised in groups and dedicated to their task. In some cases state players with large resources can be suspected of wanting a third party to act on their behalf, in what is usually called cyber war by proxy. A conflict in cyberspace usually has its origins in the real world, where hacktivism is used as a force multiplier to convey messages and show one’s strength to the adversary. Using the Internet for activism is an option when other means may not be available or appropriate. It is a very useful and cheap tool for conveying messages. The origin of the activism may be a perceived offense against some- thing of great idealistic or religious value. Individuals or groups of people feel wronged for some reason and want to present their view or express their indignation. Hacktivism can also aim at supporting one party in a conflict in progress between nations or ethnic groups. In some...
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