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Knowledge Production in European Universities

States, Markets, and Academic Entrepreneurialism

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Marek Kwiek

The book studies transformations of European universities in the context of globalization and Europeanization, the questioning of the foundations of the «Golden Age» of the Keynesian welfare state, public sector reforms, demographic changes, the massification and diversification of higher education, and the emergence of knowledge economies. Such phenomena as academic entrepreneurialism and diversified channels of knowledge exchange in European universities are linked to transformations of the state and changes in public sector services. The first, contextual part of the book studies the changing state/university relationships, and the second, empirically-informed part draws from several recent large-scale comparative European research projects.

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Introduction: Changing Universities and Their Changing Environments

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Introduction Changing Universities and Their Changing Environments External contexts of internal transformations There are numerous, often interrelated causes of current transformations of European universities but those studied in the present book include the following. First, globalization processes with their impacts on European nation states and public services that nation states have traditionally been guaranteeing to its citizens. Second, Europeanization processes, most often defined as a regional, European response to globalization and internationalization processes. Third, the large-scale (in theory, practice, or both) questioning of the foundations of the “Golden Age” of the Keynesian welfare state in the form it has been known in postwar Europe and large-scale reforms (in theory, practice, or both) of the public sector in general and its particular public services. Fourth, demographic changes which affect or are expected to affect in the next few decades the majority of aging European societies. Fifth, the massification and (often) universalization of higher education and its increasing diversification across European systems. And, finally, the emergence of knowledge societies and knowledge-driven economies and the acknowledgement of the fundamental role universities play in the new economic and social contexts. The above processes have been culminating about a decade ago and have been accompanied by powerful, both national and supranational, discourses at various interrelated policy-making levels: the most prevalent discourses focused on such constructs of the social sciences and (national and global) policy as “globalization”, “Europeanization” and “European integration”, “knowledge economy”, and “knowledge society”. These general umbrella terms have been organizing much of research...

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