States, Markets, and Academic Entrepreneurialism
PART IITOWARDS EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE:ACADEMIC ENTREPRENEURIALISMAND KNOWLEDGE EXCHANGEIN EUROPEAN UNIVERSITIES
PART II TOWARDS EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE: ACADEMIC ENTREPRENEURIALISM AND KNOWLEDGE EXCHANGE IN EUROPEAN UNIVERSITIES Chapter 5 Academic Entrepreneurialism vs. Changing Governance and Institutional Management Structures in European Universities 5.1. Introduction In this chapter we will discuss a historically relatively new phenomenon in European higher education systems, emergent in various geographical locations across the continent: academic entrepreneurialism – especially with regard to governance and management (entrepreneurialism viewed, following Shattock, as “a drive to identify and sustain a distinctive institutional agenda which is institutionally determined not one [which is] effectively a product of a state funding formula”, 2009b: 3). Entrepreneurial universities seem to be increasingly important points of reference for international and European-level policy discussions about the future of higher education.182 The term “entrepreneurial” in relation to universities is not of critical importance; in research literature, entrepreneurial universities, from various perspectives and with emphases focused on different aspects of their functioning, can also be termed “successful universities” or “self-reliant universities” (Michael Shattock), “enterprise universities” (Simon Marginson and Mark Considine), “enterprising universities” (Gareth Williams), “innovative universities” (Burton Clark), “adaptive universities” (Barbara Sporn), “responsive universities” (William G. Tierney), or, in the American context, they can be considered as academic institutions involved in the academic capitalism in the emergent “capitalist academic knowledge/learning regime” (Sheila Slaughter, Gary Rhodes, and Larry L. Leslie; see Shattock Shattock 2003a, Shattock 2006, Shattock 2009a, Marginson and Considine 2000, Williams 2004, Sporn 1999, Tierney 1998, 182 See, for instance, contributions to annual University-Business Forums in the last few years and two recent projects:...
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