Proceedings of FDSL 9, Göttingen 2011
Edited By Uwe Junghanns, Dorothee Fehrmann, Denisa Lenertová and Hagen Pitsch
Barbara Tomaszewicz: Aż/čak – the Scalar Opposite of Scalar only
AŜ/čak – the Scalar Opposite of Scalar only* Barbara Tomaszewicz University of Southern California Abstract I propose an analysis of the particles aŜ (až), found in Polish, Czech, Slovak and Russian, and čak in Bulgarian, Serbian and other South Slavic languages as focus sensitive adverbs with the meaning contribution of the scalar opposite of scalar only/merely. I argue that aŜ and čak are focus associating propositional operators like only and even. They impose a scalar ordering on the focus alternatives according to a contextually salient dimension. I analyze the semantic contribution of aŜ/čak in terms of three components, such that each is a scalar reversal of the corresponding component of scalar only. Thus, aŜ/čak (i) assert the exclusion of lower alternatives, (ii) presuppose that among the alternatives at most the prejacent holds, and (iii) presuppose that the prejacent is significantly high on the contextual scale. 1 AŜ/čak – scalar interpretation The sentences in (2) and (3), as opposed to (1), carry an implication about the position of the manager on the scale of people who are relevant in the context for Maria to talk to. In (2) the manager is low on the scale – the Polish adverb zaledwie is a counterpart of the English merely. In (3) due to the addition of aŜ the manager is interpreted as high on the scale. (1) Maria rozmawiała z menedŜerem. (Po) Maria talked with manager ‘Maria talked to the manager.’ (2) Maria rozmawiała zaledwie...
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