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Twentieth Century Wars in European Memory

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Jozef Niznik

In various European countries the two world wars are remembered in very different ways, although everywhere one can find monuments which serve as material objectification of the memory of war. However, such objectifications not only determine certain patterns of remembrance and a specific perception of the past: they also contribute to local and/or national identity and create the basis for attitudes toward the other participants of war. As it happens, instruments of memory live their own life and the meanings they attach to particular events may be changed by historical and political processes. The question remaining in the background of this publication is whether we can «make Europeans» without European collective memory transgressing national perspectives. The memory of war, which inevitably shows the overall absurdity and tragedy of war no matter where and against whom fought, may be the primary candidate for such Europeanization.

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Acknowledgements ............................................................................................. 7 Preface.................................................................................................................. 9 Józef Ni�nik The Social Instruments of European Memory ...................................................... 9 Introduction....................................................................................................... 17 Jay Winter Places and Traces................................................................................................ 17 Part I Symbolism of material objectifications of the memory of war ..................... 21 Bertram M. Gordon “Defensive Architecture” and World War II: The Maginot Line in Memory and Tourism ....................................................... 23 Sílvia Correia Forgotten Places of Memory: First World War Memorials in Portugal, 1919-1933 ........................................................................................................... 37 Helen E Beale Resonant Commemoration and the Trope of the Wall: Time and Memory Echoes in 20th-Century French Resistance War Memorials .............................. 67 PART II Visualizing memory .......................................................................................... 87 Julia Winckler War, Memory and Photographic Traces ............................................................. 89 Marjorie Gehrhardt Walking Reminders of the War: The Case of Facially Disfigured Veterans........ 103 Karina Dilanian-Pinkowicz Visualizing the Armenian Genocide: Photographic and Cinematographic Representation................................................................................................... 117 6 Contents Part III Memory for sale .............................................................................................. 133 Vicky Davis Memory for Sale: Local and National Interpretations of Brezhnev’s Malaia zemlia ................................................................................................... 135 Urszula Jarecka War Tourism in Poland and Germany .............................................................. 151 Karen Shelby History, Memory or Propaganda: The Great War, the Martyred Soldier and 21st-Century Flemish Politics ..................................................................... 179 Part IV Memory within geographic space.................................................................. 203 Petra Svoljsak Slovenian Historiography and Collective Memory of World War I in the First Yugoslavia (1918-1941) ................................................................. 205 Katja �krlj “Sites of Memory, Sites of Mourning” or Landmarks: the Case of WWI Memory on the Border of Slovenia and Italy ..................................... 217 Ma�gorzata Karczewska Cuius regio, eius memoria. World War I Memorials in the Territory of Former East Prussia, Now within Poland..................................................... 231 Ma�gorzata W�oszycka Representation of...

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