Standard and nonstandard language in translation. Grzegorz Skommer
Standard and nonstandard language in translation Grzegorz Skommer Each language has a number of varieties. A language variety is usually defined as „a specific set of linguistic items or human speech patterns (sounds, words, grammatical features) which can be associated with some external factor (geographical area or a social group)“ .1 Regional (geographical) varieties of a language are usually called dialects, whereas varieties associated with a certain social class can be termed sociolects. The concept of linguistic varieties often hovers around the notion of a standard language; upon this view dialects and sociolects are seen as nonstandard versions of a standardized form, i.e. the form that enjoys recognition and support of official institutions. A standard language is highly codified, which entails that it has a written form that is considered correct because it adheres to a set of rules established by some linguistic authority (for example, a language council). Hence, it is predominantly the standard language that is used in literature; a literary canon of a nation usually comprises works that has one fundamental thing in common: a linguistic code governed by the same rules of grammar, as well as by standardized spelling and vocabulary. Most dialects and sociolects, on the other hand, are not codified in written form and only marginally used for literary purposes. Nevertheless, numerous examples can be found in literature of works whose authors exploit different varieties of their native tongue. The reasons for doing so can be many. Dialects can be applied by writers to...
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