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Heterodox Economics 2

Alternative Analysis to the Mainstream "Blackboard Economics</I> Based on the Concept of "Creative Mental Labor</I>

Hasan Gürak

Heterodox Economics 2 consists of articles which are complementary to the subjects presented in the book titled Heterodox Economics, published in 2012. The aim is to present alternative economic approaches based on the concept of Creative Mental Labor that are intended to make a contribution to the emergence of a new economics. The analysis throughout the book is based upon the principle that the original source of all the value added to products (considering nature as a given), is the mental and physical inputs of labor that continuously create new technologies while at the same time making use of the available technologies.

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7- Final Remarks

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The ambition “to have more” possessions whether in the form of money or products, for many individuals appear to be their main goal in life and the source of all their happi- ness. Individuals as the consumers of products have to learn to say “enough” and attempt to put a rein on this unbridled ambition “to have more”, which undermines the humanity inside us. After all, when we die we cannot take our posses- sions with us. The emphasis in the six previous sections of this book dealt with the “creative mental abilities” of the laborers. That is natural because it is basically these “mental abilities” supported by physical labor which create the new products and production processes demanded by the markets. Accordingly, it is again the mental abilities of men that help to organize the economic system and run it ef- ficiently in accordance with the rules. In addition, all kinds of economic deci- sions and transactions involve the use of man's mental abilities. If these mental abilities were not as developed and creative as they are, human beings would not have material living conditions that are different from any other creatures. This being the case, human effort would simply be confined to the finding of food, shelter and protection. Not only would there be no technological progress, no scientific advancement, no cultural activity nor any of the other diverse activities created by man's mental ability. The sole purpose of all creative mental activity is to improve living conditions...

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