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Nordic Ideology between Religion and Scholarship

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Edited By Horst Junginger and Andreas Akerlund

The articles of this volume treat the expansion of the Nordic ideology in the first half of the twentieth century. They concentrate on the amalgamation of scientific, religious and political features, which transformed the idea of the North into a mainstay of extreme nationalism. Lacking positive norms and values, the Nordic idea depended on the opposition against everything deemed un-Nordic. Völkisch Nordicism shared with conventional forms of nationalism the enmity with Judaism and Bolshevism and – to a lesser extent – with Anglo-Americanism and Catholicism. Beyond that, it constituted a mythological counter narrative that combined the idea of spiritual kinship with biological lineage, on Pagan as well as on Christian grounds.

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Notion and Concept of the Nordic Idea

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The Notions Völkisch and Nordic: A Conceptual Approximation Uwe Puschner Preliminary Note Ethnic, folkish, national, nationalistic, racial, ethnique, national and raciste are com- mon English and French translations of the German word völkisch.1 The multiplicity of interpretations demonstrated by these variant translations points not only to the difficulty of appropriately translating the term but to the confusion the adjective völ- kisch has caused for more than a hundred years as well. Historical Remarks on the Political Slogan It began in the mid-1870s with the proposal from völkisch language ideologue Her- mann von Pfister-Schwaighusen that the Latin-rooted word “national” be Germa- nised to völkisch.2 The use of the word quickly spread, initially throughout the pan- German environment in Austria, then, at the turn of the century, entering the lan- guage of German radical nationalism and becoming the sign of a hybrid, integral nationalism.3 Its assimilation into mainstream German vocabulary and establish- ment as a political rallying cry set off controversies about the word. Völkisch is, as an Austrian proponent of the völkisch movement in 1925 stated, the same as nation- al but somehow something different: “dasselbe wie ‘national’ und doch etwas an-                                                                                                                           1 Winfried Baumgart, Wörterbuch historischer und politischer Begriffe des 19. und 20. Jahrhunderts. Deutsch, englisch, französisch (München: Oldenbourg, 2010), p. 531. Modern German-English and German-French dictionaries normally translate völkisch as “national” or “nationalistic”; for further examples, see fn. 23. 2 See Uwe Puschner, “Pfister (seit den 1880er Jahren...

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