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Thinking and Acting in Military Pedagogy

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Edited By Hubert Annen, Can Nakkas and Juha Mäkinen

Military pedagogical research and teaching has made headways. There is still no internationally accepted unified field theory, but the diversity and heterogeneity of military pedagogy reflects the complexity of modern military tasks and enables the scientific debate on military ethics and morale, military education and interculturality. While political and educational developments have caught up with some of the topics addressed, changes in the military and the political and educational landscape will always necessitate this branch of academia to continuously adapt to the needs of the armed forces and their servicemen and -women. Insofar, the diverse contributions in this volume offer valuable insights into current military pedagogical thinking and acting.

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2. Military Pedagogic Teaching and Practice

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97 Amira Raviv Military Ethics and Moral Dilemmas: Between “On the Job Learning” and Formal Education Overview: Ethics as the Moral Fiber of the Army Ongoing concern with ethical and normative issues constitutes the moral and exis- tential fiber of any army in a democratic country. Therefore, the development of a moral doctrine is the basis for shaping a separate, distinct identity that lends depth and validity to the military career. The development of the moral and ethical aware- ness of commanders is essential in an organization whose existence focuses on acts of violence and use of force, which are forbidden from a moral point of view. However, moral identity, which is often expressed in codes of ethics, cannot be separated from the norms prevailing in the society and in the country at a given time1. Moreover, over the years the gap between the civil norms of Western socie- ties and the value system of the army has grown. The erosion of values such as col- lective discipline, sacrificing one’s life for the country, responsibility, personal example, and even identification with and legitimation of the goals of war appear to have influenced the army and penetrated into the military system. Erosion exacts a price which might affect the spirit of combat, the quality of performance in mis- sions, and the norms of conduct in routine and emergency situations. However, the gap between civil and military norms also arouses welcome skepticism. Thus, there is a need to constantly examine the gaps...

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