Edited By Hubert Annen, Can Nakkas and Juha Mäkinen
4. Interoperability and Interculturality
241 Bo Talerud Military Leadership for Cooperation? – Education for Civil-Military Cooperation in International Missions Introduction International peacekeeping missions have gone through radical changes during the last decades, both in numbers and the nature of the missions. The involve- ment of civilian actors dealing with political, developmental, humanitarian, hu- man rights, juridical, and social issues has increased rapidly, resulting in a very complex mixture of military and civilian players. There are several obstacles to civil-military cooperation that need to be overcome, for which military leaders at all levels share a responsibility with other actors. In this article I will argue for a more elaborated view of civil-military cooperation and make some suggestions on how to develop a more elaborated approach. Peacekeeping in international missions: From monitoring ceasefires to supporting the (re)construction of fragile states Between 1947 and 1989, 15 UN Peacekeeping operations were established. By 2007, 62 UN operations had been launched (United Nations, 2007). In 1998 the UN deployed 14’000 peacekeepers worldwide. In 2007 the number had in- creased to over 90’000 military and civilian personnel in the field of different UN mandated missions. Also, the nature of these missions has changed funda- mentally, from mostly monitoring ceasefires to supporting the reconstruction of fragile states,1 sometimes even supporting the creation of such states. Moreover, the involvement of civilian actors (both governmental and non-governmental) has increased dramatically. On the whole, there is a complex mixture of military forces from different countries, UN personnel, foreign diplomats, development agencies, other governmental...
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