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Taking Private Use Seriously

A Critical Evaluation of the Legal Treatment of Private Use under Chinese Digital Copyright Law

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Zhong Zheng

Private use is full of uncertainty both in theory and in application. Given the fact that the copying itself, whether in a private use context or a piracy context, is physically the same, it is very easy to confuse private copying with piracy. However, private use serves an important role not only relating to users’ fundamental rights such as free speech and the right of autonomy and privacy, but also in contributing to the creative process by fostering creativity-relevant human capital. This book critically evaluates the legal treatment of private use under Chinese digital copyright law, which provides overprotection for Technological Protection Measures (TPMs) and abandons the private use limitation on digital copyright. It also examines the underlying causes and possible solutions.

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Abbreviations ...................................................................................................... 15 Introduction ......................................................................................................... 17 I. Research Content: Private Use ................................................................ 18 1. Terminology ........................................................................................ 18 2. Definition ................................... ........................................................ 19 3. The Boundary between Private Use and Copyright: Enjoyment vs. Exploitation ................................................................. 20 4. The Intersection between Private Use and Copyright: Copying of Works ............... ............................................................... 22 II. Research Context: China ........................................................................ 25 1. Universal Problems in Private Use Issues and China’s Special Instance .................................................................................. 25 2. The Significance of Research on Private Use in the Chinese Context ....................................... ................................ 27 III. Methodology and Structure ................................................................... 28 Chapter I The Legal Treatment of Private Use under Chinese Copyright Law ..................................................................................................... 33 1.1 Legal Framework of Chinese Copyright Law ....................................... 34 1.1.1 General Principles .......................................................................... 34 1.1.2 Protected Copyright ....................................................................... 36 1.1.2.1 Moral Rights and Economic Rights ........................................ 36 1.1.2.2 Standards for Copyright Infringement .................................... 38 1.1.2.3 “Dual System” Approach to Copyright Protection ................. 41 1.1.3 Restrictions on Copyright .............................................................. 43 1.1.3.1 Chinese Copyright Limitation System in General .................. 44 1.1.3.2 “Fair Use” under the Chinese Copyright Law ........................ 46 1.2 Statutory “Free Zone” of Private Use under Chinese Copyright Law ....................................................................................... 50 10 Taking Private Use Seriously 1.2.1 First Sale Doctrine.......................................................................... 51 1.2.2 Private Use Exemption within Fair Use ......................................... 53 1.2.3 Restrictions on Private Use Exemption by “Three-step Test”....... 55 1.3 The Impact of Digitisation on the Legal Treatment of Private Use in Contemporary China ............................................... 57 1.3.1 Copyright Expansion in the Digital Environment ......................... 58 1.3.2 The First Sale Doctrine Is Inapplicable in Cyberspace .................. 59 1.3.3 No Private Use Exemption within Fair Use of Information Network Transmission Right ...................................... 61 1.3.4 No Private Use Exception to the Anticircumvention Provision of TPMs ........................................ ..................................... 63 1.4 Summary ................. ............................................................................. 65...

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