Decentralization and Institutional Change for Sustainable Forest Management in Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania and Ethiopia
Edited By Franz Gatzweiler
Chapter 2 The Role of Institutions for Sustainable Livelihoods in Eastern Africa Forest Landscapes: Experience from Tanzania: Emmanuel Luoga and George C. Kajembe
49 Chapter 2 The Role of Institutions for Sustainable Livelihoods in Eastern Africa Forest Landscapes: Experience from Tanzania Emmanuel Luoga and George C. Kajembe 2.1 Abstract Historically, Tanzania went through political changes in which different forest management institutions emerged either by design or by necessity. There are two distinct categories of institutions: informal and formal. The former is based on cultural values and norms to regulate behaviour whereas the latter is political in nature. The question is whether these institutions are effective in improving the livelihood of forest adjacent communities. Data for this study were collected from six forest sites with various management regimes: communal, private, local and national/government. Preliminary analysis indicated that communities adjacent to forests claim de-facto rights to products. Although cultural institutions have proven to be effective in conserving the resources since historical times, their effectiveness has been overtaken by socio-cultural and political changes over time. Formal institutions by the forest authorities have good intentions, but poor staffing and lack of management plans render the institutions ineffective thus becoming the source of poor monitoring and over utilization of resources. These institutions stand to succeed if concerted efforts are made to strengthen both formal and informal rules in managing forests as Common Pool Resources (CPRs). 2.2 Introduction Harvesting of products from forests is key to livelihood enhancement particularly in tropical and subtropical countries as local communities collect fuel wood, medicine and other products from the forest. To understand this complex rela- tionship, it is necessary to revisit the...
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