The Use of Example Markers in English and German
3 The argumentative use of example markers
Concerning the argumentative use of example markers we have not, up to now, distinguished the different forms of inference. As (1) shows, example markers can be used in abductions where the host sentence functions as a premise for the statement made in the left sentence, or they occur in deductions, as in (2), where they mark the conclusion:79 (1) Peter is a real sportsman (p): thus, for example, he congratulated his opponent John on his victory (q). (2) Peter is a real sportsman (p): thus, for example, he is likely to congratulate his opponent John on his victory (q). We need to distinguish from the above a second group of argumentative uses in which as in (3) the host sentence includes at least one individual case on the ba- sis of which the validity of a previously posited general thesis is illustrated, i.e. it is retrospectively inductively justified, or where as in (4) inferences are made analogically from one element of equal rank to another: (3) Many people experience considerable harm or suffering caused by other indi- viduals, without defining themselves as victims. For example, Elizabeth, who is very religious, has long been a victim of domestic violence, but she still con- siders herself responsible. (4) We need God’s protection just as, for example, a sheep needs the protection of the shepherd from the dangers that surround it.80 Since both groups differ in terms of logic, epistemology, syntax and discourse structure, we will treat them separately. 79 For the...
You are not authenticated to view the full text of this chapter or article.
This site requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books or journals.
Do you have any questions? Contact us.Or login to access all content.