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Proliferation and Implementation of Prison Ombudsmen

Comparative Analysis of the Prisons and Probation Ombudsman for England and Wales and the Justizvollzugsbeauftragter des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen


Sabine Carl

Prison ombudsmen are charged with investigating claims of injustice and breaches of human rights within the total institutions of the penal system. This book comprehensively explains which needs these institutions were intended to meet, why they spread around the globe and how their proliferation determined their implementation. Using a grounded theory approach, the author examines one subject each from both the common and civil law world. The result is a detailed analysis of the acute impact of pressure on cross-fertilization processes involving human rights-sensitive penal institutions.


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ABA American Bar Association ADP average daily population ADR alternative dispute resolution Art. Artikel (article) AV Allgemeinverfügung (ministerial decree) BIOA British and Irish Ombudsman Association BverfGE Entscheidung des Bundesverfassungs- gerichts (decision of the Federal Constitutional Court) BverfGG Bundesverfassungsgerichtsgesetz (Law on the Federal Constitutional Court) CDU Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands DJT Deutscher Juristentag (German Legal Association's Annual Meeting) ECHR European Convention on Human Rights ECPT European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment EctHR European Court of Human Rights EHRR European Human Rights Reports FCC Federal Constitutional Court FDP Freie Demokratische Partei GG Grundgesetz (German Basic Law) HM His/Her Majesty HMCIP Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector for Prisons IBA International Bar Association XVI IMB Independent Monitoring Board LJ Lord Justice MoJ Ministry of Justice MP Member of Parliament NGO non-governmental organisation NOMS National Offender Management Service NPM National Preventive Mechanism OPCAT Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture PCA Parliamentary Commissioner of Administration PHSO Parliamentary and Health Service Ombudsman PSO Prison Service Orders SPD Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands SPT United Nations Subcommittee on Prevention of Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment StVollzG Strafvollzugsgesetz (German prison act) UK United Kingdom UN United Nations US United States of America WWII Second World War

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