11. School of Logicians and Legists
Keywords: language, name, law, reward and punishment, technique of rule 11.1 School of Names In the Era of the Fighting States, ﬁ ghts over dominance took place at the language level. That could be a reason why thinkers were fascinated by the language question. Thinkers-philosophers came from a lower aristocratic class. They were minor offi ce servants charged with public administration, who gradually became the only experts on rituals and script. In relation to language, diff erent schools had diff erent attitudes. Confucians considered language and speech to be an important cultural achievement of mankind. Therefore they should be used best for the develop- ment of mankind. Taoists pointed out that language could become an obstacle to perceiving a broader and 106 basic reality – Tao path, naturalness, and spontaneity. Legists considered language an instrument of power. Cosmological streams of philosophical thinking repre- sented by the Book of Changes, Chinese Yijing, was not much concerned about language. The representatives of the School of Logicians considered language itself as an interesting target. They followed up on the logi- cal aspects of Mohism. This stream was later called the School of forms and names, Chinese xingmingjia, some- times presented under the short title the School of names. It was not a real group or network. Their works share an interest in language. Characteristic features of the School were the following: a) reasoning, b) logical analysis – they emphasised that only one of the opposite arguments can correspond with reality, and c) identiﬁ ca- tion means...
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