Edited By Corina Daba-Buzoianu, Hasan Arslan and Mehmet Ali Icbay
Secondary School Students’ Attitudes to and Awareness of Cyberbullying in Turkey: A Scaling Method Case Study in Ankara
New information and communication technologies have brought new risks as well as new opportunities for children. With the popularity of electronic communication among adolescents, traditional bullying has taken on a new form and the phenomenon of cyberbullying has emerged as a new threat for children and teens.
Cyberbullying has its roots in traditional bullying but differs in distinct ways. Cyberbullying describes the repeated, deliberate, and hostile behaviours of an individual or a group toward another individual, which includes insulting, defamation, rumour, teasing, flaming, threatening, outing, exclusion, and denigration in an electronic environment such as e-mail, instant messaging, chat rooms, blogs, and social networks (Patchin & Hinduja, 2006). Repetition is among the criteria of traditional bullying. However, repetition is not a necessary criterion of indirect cyberbullying, as the repetition occurs by the constant and spreading nature of the ICT (Vandebosch & Van Cleemput, 2009; Langos, 2012; Slonje, Smith & Frisen, 2013). Unlike traditional bullying, cyberbullying cannot be easily observed, allowing the offenders to hide their identity. The power of the bullies is not based on physical strength but on their superior technological knowledge. According to the European Union (EU) Kids Online Project report, Turkey belongs to the “lower use, some risk” group in terms of children’s online use and risk (Haddon & Livingstone, 2012). However, in line with technological developments, internet access has risen and the starting age of internet users in Turkey has fallen to six years of age (TÜİK, 2013). In...