Edited By Adela Elena Popa, Hasan Arslan, Mehmet Ali Icbay and Tomas Butvilas
Turkish Ethnic Minority and Social Capital: The Case of Denmark
Introduction Social capital is broadly referred to as norms, social networks, and trust (for exam- ple, see Bourdieu, 1986; Putnam, 1995; Lin, 2008). Social bonds maintain social integrity and collaboration in addition to creating the feeling of belonging. There are many studies which emphasise the positive aspects of social capital. Almost all cases related to social capital focus on the positive aspects and few studies focus on the negative cases (see Portes, 1998; Adler et al., 2002). Social capital is bidirectional; while it is an advantage for the people inside the group, it may be a disadvantage for those outside the group. With regard to ethnic communities, social capital decreases the isolating and discriminatory effects of the majority and makes opportunities accessible by means of forming its own resources. With regard to ethnic minorities, it is a state of social and psychological defense and while it maintains a high social capital within the majority and minority groups, it may have a negative quality in the majority of society. On the one hand, in an analysis on the basis of ethnic minority and majority groups, social capital, along with the phenomenon of migration, becomes visible with its positive aspects. Social capital is significant in the attainment of intra-group unity, in the utili- sation of network products by the group members, and in diminishing costs and risks caused by migration. On the other hand, it may also bring about negative phenomena such as exclusionist identity politics, exclusion, marginalisation, and crime. Ethnic group...
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