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Prolegomena to a Science of Reasoning

Phaneroscopy, Semeiotic, Logic

Charles S. Peirce and Elize Bisanz

Charles Sanders Peirce (1839–1914), American Scientist, Mathematician, and Logician, developed much of the logic widely used today. Using copies of his unpublished manuscripts, this book provides a comprehensive collection of Peirce’s writings on Phaneroscopy and the outlines of his project to develop a Science of Reasoning. The collection is focused on three main fields: Phaneroscopy, the science of observation, Semeiotic, the science of sign relations, and Logic, the science of inferences. Peirce understands all thought to be mediated in and through signs and its essence to be diagrammatic. The book serves as a timely contribution for the introduction of Peirce’s Phaneroscopy to the emerging research field of Image Sciences.
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Three studies that are needlessly and very unhappily confounded: Phaneroscopy (as I call it, or Phenomenology), Logic, and Psychology Proper. One of the three is a Science, though youthful and immature: that is Psychology Proper, one is an embryo-science, so I rate Logic, because it still lacks that considerable body of well-drilled workers pursuing methods acknowledged by all, taking advantage of one another’s discoveries to push research still on and on, and turning out new discoveries at a healthy rate, all of which I take to be essential to a developed science. The third, Phaneroscopy, is still in the condition of a science-egg, hardly any details of it being as yet distinguishable, though enough to assure the student of it that, under the fostering care that it is sure to enjoy, if human culture continues long, it surely will in the future become a strong and beneficent science.

By Psychology Proper I mean the Empirical Science of the workings and growths of minds and their relations to the animal or other organisms in which Psychical phenomena can be detected. In short, it is a sort of Physiology of the soul. By Logic I mean the study of the distinction between Truth and Falsity, and the theory of how to attain the former together with all that the investigator of that theory must make his business to probe: It comes, for the solution of the problem in my opinion, in the present state of science, to...

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