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The Axiology of Friedrich Nietzsche

Nicolae Râmbu

In his unmistakable style, Friedrich Nietzsche approached the issue of all classes of values, not only the moral ones. The author presents Nietzsche as a philosopher of values par excellence by analysing vital and economic values, religious and political values, moral and aesthetic values, and, in addition to all these, value in general, with all its implications for human life and humanity. Nietzsche had an instinct for value, a faculty for feeling the finest nuances of the phenomenon of value, and a passion for knowing the axiological universe. These were extraordinary and have rarely been seen in the history of culture.
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II. The Axioclasm of Friedrich Nietzsche, or Creative Destruction


This essay questions the category of destroyer that Friedrich Nietzsche belongs to. He was neither an intellectual terrorist, as he was called, nor an anarchist, as he was also characterized. Despite the fact that nihilism, as a term, became popular through Friedrich Nietzsche’s work, he himself was not an nihilist since Entwertung aller Werte (devaluation of all values) meant for him only Entwertung aller christlichen Werte. His axiology is so unique that it forces us to invent a new term for it: axioclasm.

1. To philosophize with a hammer and sickle

In The Twilight of the Idols, and across almost all his work, Friedrich Nietzsche “philosophizes with a hammer”, a phenomenon associated, not only by the dilettante reader but also by most commentators, with a certain violence, or interpreted as the gesture of a madman in the psychiatric sense of the term, who, having escaped from the straitjacket, causes havoc around him. Shattering the old values, the favourite subject of Nietzsche’s philosophy, takes the form of a set of statues, symbolizing the deepest “truths” of humanity or representing their discoveries, that a madman smashes into pieces. Friedrich Nietzsche’s pleasure in destruction was often noted.26 But this passion for violent destruction had nothing to do with his thinking.

First of all, we must bear in mind that in Thus Spoke Zarathustra the “hammer” is the main instrument of philosophizing, but it is associated with the “sickle”. Therefore, to be fair to Friedrich Nietzsche,...

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