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Metaphysics

Selected Problems of Metaphysics and Ontology

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Renáta Kišoňová

The presented text offers a basic overview of the terms and topics of the very wide philosophical discipline called metaphysics. The text includes, besides an overview of individual problems, reflections to consider and recommended literature. Readers will become familiar with the basic terms (metaphysics, ontology, existence, being), with the metaphysics of archaic nations, Parmenides’s approach to understand being as The One, the understanding of time and events of the Greeks, the problem of categories according to Aristotle and Kant, the problem of intuition and fundamental ontology.
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4. Being as The One. Parmenides

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Without exaggeration it is possible to say that Parmenides laid, by means of his philosophical poem, the foundations for ontology as well as for anti-metaphysical positions. He is considered to be the most revolutionary and at the same time the most difficult to interpret of the pre-Socratic philosophers. According to Diogenes Laertius, he wrote only one work, a metaphysical-cosmological poem in hexametre which originally consisted of approximately 800 verses but fewer than 160 of them were preserved.

Reflections on the three ways by means of which we can (or cannot) get to know can be found in Parmenides’ fractions. The first way of thinking is the one which says that “something is.” Parmenides considers this way to be the right one. Another two ways which say that “nothing is not” and “something is and is not at the same time” are excluded by him: “I want to tell you – listen carefully ← 25 | 26 → to my words and keep them – which ways of examination are the conceivable ones: one that is and cannot be, that is the way of conviction because it follows the truth; the second one that is also not and necessarily does not have to be” 28 B2 (Antológia z diel filozofov (Predsokratovci Platón, zv.1), p. 118).

“It is necessary to speak and think that existing as being is but nothing is not. I command you to think about it. First, I want to divert you from this way but...

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