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Introduction to Philosophy

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Renáta Kišoňová

The first part of this textbook introduces philosophy to the reader as a part of culture, in addition to science, religion, art. It outlines various disciplines of philosophy, metaphysics, epistemology, aesthetics, philosophy of mind etc. The second part maps the understanding of history, or the philosophical reflection of history in the history of philosophy.
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4. Philosophical Disciplines

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Philosophy is a collection of various fields. It consists of the history of philosophy and individual disciplines dealing with many diverse interconnected problems.

4.1 Metaphysics

It is not easy to define metaphysics. Its importance, methods and precise content have changed over the course of history. It was delineated in relation to science, theology and later within philosophy to non-metaphysical philosophical conceptions. The term metaphysics is of Greek origin (ta meta, ta fysika, the thing which is behind physics). This term was documented for the first time in the texts of a Peripatetic Nicolaus of Damascus (born probably in 64 AD), who was probably ← 25 | 26 → inspired by another Peripatetic – Andronicus of Rhodes (born also approximately around 60 AD). Andronicus put Aristotle’s works in order according to subject where the works about “the first philosophy” were put “meta” i.e. “behind” the works about nature (Gr. physis). (see: Kišoňová, R.: Metafyzika, p. ?, 2015)

For Aristotle, for example, metaphysics is a science that deals with the knowledge of

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