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Introduction to Philosophy


Renáta Kišoňová

The first part of this textbook introduces philosophy to the reader as a part of culture, in addition to science, religion, art. It outlines various disciplines of philosophy, metaphysics, epistemology, aesthetics, philosophy of mind etc. The second part maps the understanding of history, or the philosophical reflection of history in the history of philosophy.
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6. Philosophy and Science


Since its inception, philosophy has been coexisted cosily with science (at that time with protoscience). The first philosophers did not contemplate the infinity, as Patočka says, but they existed at the same time the co-founders of science. (see: Patočka, J.: Vznik filosofie, p. 114)

The theoretical approach to the world mediated through wonder and doubts was gradually dividing and separating from philosophy. The limits of questions, which can be answered unequivocally, started to be uncovered and then emerged the questions that still cannot be answered unequivocally even today. The first ones were assumed by science and the second ones by philosophy. What is the difference between them? “… science is characterized by the fact that it is based on canon of relatively firmly defined starting points, methods and procedures, which it comes from, with the help of ← 97 | 98 → which it chooses questions to be answered and with the help of which it searches for the answers to these questions.” (Peregrin, J.: Filosofie pro normálni lidi, p. 16). Scientific knowledge has, unlike philosophical knowledge, ascending and cumulative character. Since the time of Hippocrates we have clearly and definitively moved forward in medicine but the questions that nagged at Plato have still not been answered satisfactorily and we have not progressed beyond Plato’s original responses. Philosophy does not present any generally applicable results, unlike the way science fundamentally does for nature. Science in its most self-evident form improves the quality of our lives: we have...

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