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Middle Knowledge and Biblical Interpretation

Luis de Molina, Herman Bavinck, and William Lane Craig


Sze Sze Chiew

If God knows human actions in advance, do humans really have freedom of choice? Throughout the centuries various solutions have been offered as to how to retain or reconcile both the concepts of divine omniscience and human freedom. One solution focuses on the idea of middle knowledge. This theory originates with the Spanish Jesuit Luis de Molina, was contested by Reformed theologians such as Herman Bavinck, and makes a remarkable comeback among present-day analytical philosophers such as William Lane Craig.
Apart from a wealth of philosophical considerations, the appeal to biblical texts also plays an important role in the work on middle knowledge by each of these thinkers. The book examines their writings and investigates how contemporary biblical scholars interpret the biblical texts used by them. The author elaborates a creative proposal as to how these gained insights apply to the theory of middle knowledge and what this means for our overall evaluation of this theory.
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Bibliographic Information published by the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek The Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie; detailed bibliographic data is available in the internet at

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Chiew, Sze Sze, 1972- author. Title: Middle knowledge and biblical interpretation : Luis de Molina, Herman Bavinck, and William Lane Craig / Sze Sze Chiew. Description: 1 [edition]. | New York : Peter Lang, 2016. | Series: Contributions to philosophical theology, ISSN 1433-643X ; Volume 13 | Includes bibliographical references. Identifiers: LCCN 2016016345 | ISBN 9783631672549 Subjects: LCSH: Molinism. | Free will and determinism—Religious aspects— Christianity. | Molina, Luis de, 1535-1600. | Bavinck, Herman, 1854-1921. | Craig, William Lane. Classification: LCC BT762 .C45 2016 | DDC 233/.7—dc23 LC record available at

ISSN 1433-643X ISBN 978-3-631-67254-9 (Print) E-ISBN 978-3-653-06819-1 (E-Book) DOI 10.3726/978-3-653-06819-1

© Peter Lang GmbH Internationaler Verlag der Wissenschaften Frankfurt am Main 2016 All rights reserved. Peter Lang Edition is an Imprint of Peter Lang GmbH.

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