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Various Faces of Animal Metaphor in English and Polish

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Robert Kiełtyka

This book is dedicated to the issue of animal metaphor together with its intricacies and internal complexity. Its main objective is to present a unified picture of the role animal terms have played in the shape of English and other natural languages. The author addresses such aspects of animal metaphor as the problem of animal names used as surnames, so-called verbal and adjectival zoosemy, or the use of names of animal body parts with reference to people. The cognitively-oriented analysis is carried out in terms of the Conceptual Metaphor Theory, which is capable of accounting for semantic change in a panchronic perspective. The results show that virtually any facet of humanity, which is beyond the norm, may be viewed, perceived, conceived of and expressed in animal terms.
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Chapter 2: On the Transparency and Opaqueness of Zoosemy

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Chapter 2 On the Transparency and Opaqueness of Zoosemy

2.0 Introduction

The aim set to this chapter is to shed further light on the complexity of the mechanism of zoosemy, especially in relation to its extension into the category VERB and ADJECTIVE. To be more specific, an attempt will be made to propose a model of categorization and discuss various aspects of the mechanics of verbal and adjectival zoosemy where animal-related verbs (realised in the form of either denominal formations or as parts of speech naming actions performed by animals), and denominal as well as deverbal adjectives are used with reference to human beings or those qualities and actions that are related to human beings. Therefore, this chapter delineates a panorama of possible directions of analysis of carefully selected cases of verbal and adjectival zoosemy in which the process of semantic alteration results from the extension of animal-specific values to the level of human-specific values. The language data subject to analysis has been collected from a variety of English lexicographic sources and supported by appropriate parallel examples from Polish and a number of other languages, such as Slovak, Russian, Spanish, Turkish, Hungarian and Kazakh.

2.1 Towards the Categorisation of Verbal Zoosemy79

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