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Contemporary Approaches in Education

Edited By Kevin Norley, Mehmet Ali Icbay and Hasan Arslan

Contemporary Approaches in Education presents papers of the Fifth European Conference on Social and Behavioral Sciences in St. Petersburg, Russia and the Sixth European Conference on Social and Behavioral Sciences in Selcuk, Izmir, Turkey. The contributions deal with a wide range of educational issues, namely teaching and learning, educational policy and school psychology.
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A Review of the Nonverbal and Written Communication in Boris Pasternak’s “Doctor Zhivago”



Types of communication can be classified in two ways, namely verbal and nonverbal communication. The classification or the description of written communication is mentioned under the name of a different species. However, researchers have placed this type of verbal communication beyond the language group.

1. Written Communication

In fact, like in the case of verbal communication, the exact date of the birth of written communication is also unknown. However, the drawings found on the walls of caves can be considered as the first such types of communication. According to Zıllıoğlu, the accumulation of knowledge and experience in remote communication through written transmission, which is a more reliable way than oral communication, is one of the origins of cave paintings (1993: 174).

1.1 Examples of Written Communication in Dr. Zhivago

Pasha, who voluntarily joined the army, sends a letter from Siberia to his wife, Lara, and to their daughter, Katya. In the letter are expressed news from the front, concerns for their health, and his longing for the family. He expects to get permission from the army because he misses his family and wants to see them successful or slightly wounded. Not until Pasha started to not send letters, has Lara begun to worry about him. In fact, after a while, Lara increasingly worries about Pasha. In order to inquire about her husband Pasha in Moscow, Lara gets permission from where she works, namely the...

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