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Contemporary Approaches in Education

Kevin Norley, Mehmet Ali Icbay and Hasan Arslan

Contemporary Approaches in Education presents papers of the Fifth European Conference on Social and Behavioral Sciences in St. Petersburg, Russia and the Sixth European Conference on Social and Behavioral Sciences in Selcuk, Izmir, Turkey. The contributions deal with a wide range of educational issues, namely teaching and learning, educational policy and school psychology.
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Witnessing Domestic Violence of the Father Against the Mother in Childhood: Scale Developing Study / Children Witnessing the Father’s Violence Against the Mother: A Scale Developing Study



One of the most important functions of a family is that of raising children. Parents, who are the closest persons to children since their birth, may display behaviours which may obstruct or stop the development of the child, sometimes knowingly and sometimes not knowingly. Negative attitudes of parents due to economic difficulties, communication disorders, and stress may cause the children to feel worthless, inadequate, and anxious (Bilen, 1978; Bulut, 1996; Aral, 1997; Mcloyd, 1998; Kalyoncu, 2009; Temel & Bayraktar, 2009; Yurteri & Aral, 2012; Trawick-Swith, 2013). Feelings experienced by children and teenagers after witnessing unhealthy relations between parents or violence may affect their future lifestyle and relationships. When children and teenagers want to intervene in acts of domestic violence of their father against their mother, they might themselves become victims of verbal-emotional or physical violence of their fathers, or, sometimes, even of their mothers who were subjected to the violence. Moreover, children and teenagers who witnessed violence may assume and imitate this situation. According to the social learning theory, a child who sees the domestic violence of their father against their mother perceives their mother as weak and powerless and may adopt and internalise this perception (Mcloyd, 1998; Uz, 1989; Bulut, 1996; Ardam & Yükseli, 2009; Kaptanoğlu, 2013). In the study of Ardam & Yükseli (2009) regarding children witnessing domestic violence against women, it is found that male children at the age when they begin to socialise subjected the women in their...

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